In France as in the United States, our common understanding of the notions of volunteering (benevolat in French) and work (travail) more or less similarly define those two social practices as opposed to one another. While volunteering—benevolat— commonly refers to a free will activity exempted from remuneration; work implies both institutionalized constraints and remuneration.
Simonet, M. (2005). In between employment and volunteer work: Serving as a ‘volontaire’ and as a ‘corpsmember’ in France and the United States (CSD Research Report No. 05-07). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, Center for Social Development.