There is an emerging policy and academic discussion, supported by a growing body of empirical evidence, regarding the potentially positive effects of asset accumulation in lowincome households. However, at least two questions precede this discussion: Can the poor save? And, if so, how can programs and policies promote saving by the poor? This paper begins to address these questions through an interdisciplinary review of theory and empirical evidence on saving. The first section summarizes existing theories of saving and asset accumulation. In the second section, a general model of saving is presented. This model emphasizes contextual influences as well as individual characteristics. Subsequent sections consider variables related to ability to save and willingness to save, with an emphasis on poor and near-poor individuals. The final section offers a discussion of research and policy implications, including a list of testable propositions.